Gianluigi Buffon

Date of birth28 January 1978
Place of birthCarrara
NationalityItalian
Weight94 kg
Height1.92 m
PositionGoalkeeper

At club level, Gianluigi Buffon spent five seasons at Parma making his debut at aged seventeen where he was a member of the team that won the UEFA Cup and Italian Cup in 1998-99 before joining Juventus in July 2001 for a new world-record fee for a goalkeeper.

He won his first cap against Russia in October 1997 as a substitute, made the 1998 World Cup squad but did not play, but missed the 2000 European Championship finals through injury.

Calm, agile and with excellent anticipation.

He was picked for Italy's World Cup 2014 squad.

Club history

Team Joined Left Loan / Trialist
Parma 01 Jul 1994 03 Jul 2001
Juventus 03 Jul 2001

Club stats

Season Team Competition Apps Subs Clean sheets Conceded Y R
1999-00 Parma UEFA Champions League 2 1 2
2000-01 Parma Serie A 34 14 30
1
2000-01 Parma UEFA Cup 7 3 7
2001-02 Juventus Serie A 34 14 23
2001-02 Juventus UEFA Champions League 10 2 12
1
2002-03 Juventus Serie A 32 14 25
1
2002-03 Juventus UEFA Champions League 15 4 16
1
2003-04 Juventus Serie A 32 10 41
1
2003-04 Juventus UEFA Champions League 6 5
2004-05 Juventus Serie A 37 18 24
2004-05 Juventus UEFA Champions League 2 2
2005-06 Juventus UEFA Champions League 2 2
2008-09 Juventus UEFA Champions League 2 3
2012-13 Juventus UEFA Champions League 10 5 8
2014-15 Juventus UEFA Champions League 1 3
2015-16 Juventus UEFA Champions League 8 3 8
2016-17 Juventus UEFA Champions League 2 5
2017-18 Juventus UEFA Champions League 2 3


Please note: Career stats are based on performances in the Premier and Football Leagues and (in most cases all) internationals.

Club matches

Date Match Result Competition Round
11 Aug 1999 Rangers v Parma L 2-0 UEFA Champions League 3rd qualifying round 1st leg
25 Aug 1999 Parma v Rangers W 1-0
Agg: 1-2
UEFA Champions League 3rd qualifying round 2nd leg
14 Sep 2000 Pobeda v Parma W 0-2 UEFA Cup 1st round 1st leg
01 Oct 2000 Parma v Fiorentina D 2-2 Serie A 1
15 Oct 2000 Brescia v Parma D 0-0 Serie A 2
22 Oct 2000 Perugia v Parma L 3-1 Serie A 3
26 Oct 2000 Parma v Dinamo Zagreb W 2-0 UEFA Cup 2nd round 1st leg
01 Nov 2000 Parma v AC Milan W 2-0 Serie A 4
05 Nov 2000 Bari v Parma W 0-1 Serie A 5
09 Nov 2000 Dinamo Zagreb v Parma L 1-0
Agg: 1-2
UEFA Cup 2nd round 2nd leg
11 Nov 2000 Parma v Udinese W 2-0 Serie A 6
19 Nov 2000 Bologna v Parma L 2-1 Serie A 7
23 Nov 2000 Parma v TSV 1860 München D 2-2 UEFA Cup 3rd round 1st leg
26 Nov 2000 Parma v Lazio W 2-0 Serie A 8
02 Dec 2000 Parma v Atalanta W 2-0 Serie A 9
05 Dec 2000 TSV 1860 München v Parma W 0-2
Agg: 2-4
UEFA Cup 3rd round 2nd leg
10 Dec 2000 Juventus v Parma L 1-0 Serie A 10
17 Dec 2000 Parma v Vicenza L 0-2 Serie A 11
23 Dec 2000 Napoli v Parma D 2-2 Serie A 12
07 Jan 2001 Parma v Reggina L 0-2 Serie A 13
14 Jan 2001 Inter Milano v Parma D 1-1 Serie A 14
21 Jan 2001 Parma v Lecce D 1-1 Serie A 15
28 Jan 2001 Verona v Parma W 0-2 Serie A 16
04 Feb 2001 Parma v AS Roma L 1-2 Serie A 17
11 Feb 2001 Fiorentina v Parma W 0-1 Serie A 18
15 Feb 2001 PSV Eindhoven v Parma L 2-1 UEFA Cup 4th round 1st leg
18 Feb 2001 Parma v Brescia W 3-0 Serie A 19
22 Feb 2001 Parma v PSV Eindhoven W 3-2
Agg: 4-4
UEFA Cup 4th round 2nd leg
25 Feb 2001 Parma v Perugia W 5-0 Serie A 20
04 Mar 2001 AC Milan v Parma D 2-2 Serie A 21
11 Mar 2001 Parma v Bari W 4-0 Serie A 22
18 Mar 2001 Udinese v Parma W 1-3 Serie A 23
01 Apr 2001 Parma v Bologna D 0-0 Serie A 24
14 Apr 2001 Atalanta v Parma W 0-1 Serie A 26
18 Apr 2001 Lazio v Parma L 1-0 Serie A 25
22 Apr 2001 Parma v Juventus D 0-0 Serie A 27
28 Apr 2001 Vicenza v Parma D 0-0 Serie A
06 May 2001 Parma v Napoli W 4-0 Serie A 29
12 May 2001 Reggina v Parma L 2-0 Serie A 30
17 May 2001 Parma v Inter Milano W 3-1 Serie A 31
27 May 2001 Lecce v Parma W 1-2 Serie A 32
10 Jun 2001 Parma v Verona L 1-2 Serie A 33
17 Jun 2001 AS Roma v Parma L 3-1 Serie A 34


Please note: Match history is complete for the Premier and Football Leagues and (in most cases all) internationals.

International stats

Season Team Competition Apps Subs Clean sheets Conceded Y R
1995-96 Italy UEFA Under-18 1
2
1
1995-96 Italy Under-21 1 1
1996-97 Italy Mediterranean Cup 2 2
1996-97 Italy UEFA Under-21 6 4 2
1996-97 Italy Under-21 2 1 1
1996-97 Italy Under-23 2 1
1997-98 Italy FIFA World Cup
1
1997-98 Italy International Friendly
1
1997-98 Italy UEFA Under-21 2 3
1998-99 Italy FIGC Centenary
1
1998-99 Italy International Friendly 1
1998-99 Italy UEFA European Championship 5 2 2
1999-00 Italy International Friendly 4 1 6
1999-00 Italy UEFA European Championship 2 3
2000-01 Italy FIFA World Cup 3 2 1
2000-01 Italy International Friendly 2 1 2
2001-02 Italy FIFA World Cup 6 2 5
2001-02 Italy International Friendly 4 4
2002-03 Italy International Friendly 2
1
2
2002-03 Italy UEFA European Championship 5 3 3
2003-04 Italy International Friendly 5 2 4
2003-04 Italy UEFA European Championship 6 2 3
1
2004-05 Italy FIFA World Cup 6 2 5
2004-05 Italy International Friendly 2 1 2
2005-06 Italy FIFA World Cup 7 6 1
2005-06 Italy International Friendly 3 2
2006-07 Italy International Friendly 1 1
2006-07 Italy UEFA European Championship 7 3 6
2007-08 Italy International Friendly 3 5
2007-08 Italy UEFA European Championship 8 2 6
2008-09 Italy FIFA Confederations Cup 3 4
2008-09 Italy FIFA World Cup 4 2 2
2008-09 Italy International Friendly 2 4
2009-10 Italy FIFA World Cup 4 2 3
2009-10 Italy International Friendly 3 2
2010-11 Italy International Friendly 1 1
2010-11 Italy UEFA European Championship 2 2
2011-12 Italy International Friendly 5 1 3
2011-12 Italy UEFA European Championship 10 4 8
1
2012-13 Italy FIFA Confederations Cup 5 10
1
2012-13 Italy FIFA World Cup 5 3 1
1
2012-13 Italy International Friendly 3 1 3
2013-14 Italy FIFA World Cup 5 3 2
2013-14 Italy International Friendly 4 5
2014-15 Italy International Friendly 1 1
2014-15 Italy UEFA European Championship 5 3 2
1
2015-16 Italy International Friendly 5 1 10
2015-16 Italy UEFA European Championship 8 5 3
1
2016-17 Italy FIFA World Cup 6 3 4
2016-17 Italy International Friendly 2 3
2017-18 Italy FIFA World Cup 6 2 5
2017-18 Italy International Friendly 1 2


Please note: Career stats are based on performances in the Premier and Football Leagues and (in most cases all) internationals.

International matches

Date Match Result Competition Round
01 Jul 1995 Italy v Slovenia W 4-0 UEFA U18 Finals
19 Jul 1995 Slovakia v Italy L 1-0 UEFA U18 Final group A
22 Jul 1995 Spain v Italy L 4-1 UEFA U18 Final
20 Dec 1995 Italy v Bulgaria W 2-0 Under 21
03 Oct 1996 Moldova v Italy W 0-3 UEFA U21 Group 2
09 Oct 1996 Italy v Georgia W 6-0 UEFA U21 Group 2
18 Dec 1996 Hungary v Italy W 0-2 U21
22 Jan 1997 Greece v Italy L 1-0 U21
12 Feb 1997 England v Italy L 1-0 UEFA Under-21 Group 2
27 Mar 1997 Italy v Moldova W 6-0 UEFA U21 Group 2
01 Apr 1997 Poland v Italy D 1-1 UEFA U21 Group 2
01 May 1997 Italy v Poland D 1-1 UEFA U21 Group 2
19 Jun 1997 Italy v Albania W 4-0 U23
21 Jun 1997 Italy v Yugoslavia D 0-0 U23
23 Jun 1997 Italy v Spain W 2-0 MEDITERRANEAN CUP Semi-final
25 Jun 1997 Italy v Turkey W 5-1 MEDITERRANEAN CUP Semi-final
10 Sep 1997 Georgia v Italy L 2-0 UEFA U21 Group 2
10 Oct 1997 Italy v England L 0-1 UEFA Under-21 Group 2
29 Oct 1997 Russia v Italy D 1-1 FIFA World Cup 1st leg play-off
22 Apr 1998 Italy v Paraguay W 3-1 International Friendly
10 Oct 1998 Italy v Switzerland W 2-0 UEFA European Championship Group 1
16 Dec 1998 Italy v World XI W 6-2 FIGC CENTENARY
27 Mar 1999 Denmark v Italy W 1-2 UEFA European Championship Group 1
31 Mar 1999 Italy v Belarus D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Group 1
28 Apr 1999 Croatia v Italy D 0-0 International Friendly
05 Jun 1999 Italy v Wales W 4-0 UEFA European Championship Group 1
09 Jun 1999 Switzerland v Italy D 0-0 UEFA European Championship Group 1
08 Sep 1999 Italy v Denmark L 2-3 UEFA European Championship Group 1
09 Oct 1999 Belarus v Italy D 0-0 UEFA European Championship Group 1
13 Nov 1999 Italy v Belgium L 1-3 International Friendly
23 Feb 2000 Italy v Sweden W 1-0 International Friendly
29 Mar 2000 Spain v Italy L 2-0 International Friendly
03 Jun 2000 Norway v Italy L 1-0 International Friendly
15 Nov 2000 Italy v England W 1-0 International Friendly
28 Feb 2001 Italy v Argentina L 1-2 International Friendly
24 Mar 2001 Romania v Italy W 0-2 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
28 Mar 2001 Italy v Lithuania W 4-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
02 Jun 2001 Georgia v Italy W 1-2 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
01 Sep 2001 Lithuania v Italy D 0-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
06 Oct 2001 Italy v Hungary W 1-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
07 Nov 2001 Japan v Italy D 1-1 International Friendly
27 Mar 2002 England v Italy W 1-2 International Friendly
17 Apr 2002 Italy v Uruguay D 1-1 International Friendly
18 May 2002 Czech Republic v Italy L 1-0 International Friendly
03 Jun 2002 Italy v Ecuador W 2-0 FIFA World Cup Finals group G
08 Jun 2002 Italy v Croatia L 1-2 FIFA World Cup Finals group G
13 Jun 2002 Mexico v Italy D 1-1 FIFA World Cup Finals group G
18 Jun 2002 Korea Republic v Italy L 2-1 FIFA World Cup Finals 2nd round
21 Aug 2002 Italy v Slovenia L 0-1 International Friendly
07 Sep 2002 Azerbaijan v Italy W 0-2 UEFA European Championship Group 9
12 Oct 2002 Italy v Serbia and Montenegro D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Group 9
16 Oct 2002 Wales v Italy L 2-1 UEFA European Championship Group 9
20 Nov 2002 Italy v Turkey D 1-1 International Friendly
12 Feb 2003 Italy v Portugal W 1-0 International Friendly
29 Mar 2003 Italy v Finland W 2-0 UEFA European Championship Group 9
11 Jun 2003 Finland v Italy W 0-2 UEFA European Championship Group 9
20 Aug 2003 Germany v Italy W 0-1 International Friendly
06 Sep 2003 Italy v Wales W 4-0 UEFA European Championship Group 9
10 Sep 2003 Serbia and Montenegro v Italy D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Group 9
11 Oct 2003 Italy v Azerbaijan W 4-0 UEFA European Championship Group 9
18 Feb 2004 Italy v Czech Republic D 2-2 International Friendly
31 Mar 2004 Portugal v Italy W 1-2 International Friendly
28 Apr 2004 Italy v Spain D 1-1 International Friendly
30 May 2004 Tunisia v Italy W 0-4 International Friendly
14 Jun 2004 Denmark v Italy D 0-0 UEFA European Championship Finals Group C
18 Jun 2004 Italy v Sweden D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Finals Group C
22 Jun 2004 Italy v Bulgaria W 2-1 UEFA European Championship Finals Group C
18 Aug 2004 Iceland v Italy L 2-0 International Friendly
04 Sep 2004 Italy v Norway W 2-1 FIFA World Cup Europe group 5
08 Sep 2004 Moldova v Italy W 0-1 FIFA World Cup Europe group 5
09 Oct 2004 Slovenia v Italy L 1-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group 5
13 Oct 2004 Italy v Belarus W 4-3 FIFA World Cup Europe group 5
09 Feb 2005 Italy v Russia W 2-0 International Friendly
26 Mar 2005 Italy v Scotland W 2-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group 5
04 Jun 2005 Norway v Italy D 0-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group 5
01 Mar 2006 Italy v Germany W 4-1 International Friendly
31 May 2006 Switzerland v Italy D 1-1 International Friendly
02 Jun 2006 Italy v Ukraine D 0-0 International Friendly
12 Jun 2006 Italy v Ghana W 2-0 FIFA World Cup Finals group E
17 Jun 2006 Italy v USA D 1-1 FIFA World Cup Finals group E
22 Jun 2006 Czech Republic v Italy W 0-2 FIFA World Cup Finals group E
26 Jun 2006 Italy v Australia W 1-0 FIFA World Cup Finals - Round of 16
30 Jun 2006 Italy v Ukraine W 3-0 FIFA World Cup Quarter-final
04 Jul 2006 Germany v Italy W 0-2 FIFA World Cup Semi-final
09 Jul 2006 Italy v France W 1-1 (5-3) FIFA World Cup Final
02 Sep 2006 Italy v Lithuania D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Group B
06 Sep 2006 France v Italy L 3-1 UEFA European Championship Group B
07 Oct 2006 Italy v Ukraine W 2-0 UEFA European Championship Group B
11 Oct 2006 Georgia v Italy W 1-3 UEFA European Championship Group B
15 Nov 2006 Italy v Turkey D 1-1 International Friendly
28 Mar 2007 Italy v Scotland W 2-0 UEFA European Championship Group B
02 Jun 2007 Faroe Islands v Italy W 1-2 UEFA European Championship Group B
06 Jun 2007 Lithuania v Italy W 0-2 UEFA European Championship Group B
22 Aug 2007 Hungary v Italy L 3-1 International Friendly
08 Sep 2007 Italy v France D 0-0 UEFA European Championship Group B
12 Sep 2007 Ukraine v Italy W 1-2 UEFA European Championship Group B
13 Oct 2007 Italy v Georgia W 2-0 UEFA European Championship Group B
17 Nov 2007 Scotland v Italy W 1-2 UEFA European Championship Group B
26 Mar 2008 Spain v Italy L 1-0 International Friendly
30 May 2008 Italy v Belgium W 3-1 International Friendly
09 Jun 2008 Netherlands v Italy L 3-0 UEFA European Championship Finals Group C
13 Jun 2008 Italy v Romania D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Finals Group C
17 Jun 2008 France v Italy W 0-2 UEFA European Championship Finals Group C
22 Jun 2008 Italy v Spain L 0-0 (2-4) UEFA European Championship Finals quarter-final
20 Aug 2008 Italy v Austria D 2-2 International Friendly
06 Sep 2008 Cyprus v Italy W 1-2 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
10 Sep 2008 Italy v Georgia W 2-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
10 Feb 2009 Brazil v Italy L 2-0 International Friendly
28 Mar 2009 Montenegro v Italy W 0-2 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
01 Apr 2009 Italy v Republic of Ireland D 1-1 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
15 Jun 2009 USA v Italy W 1-3 FIFA Confederations Cup Group B
18 Jun 2009 Egypt v Italy L 1-0 FIFA Confederations Cup Group stage
21 Jun 2009 Italy v Brazil L 0-3 FIFA Confederations Cup Group B
12 Aug 2009 Switzerland v Italy D 0-0 International Friendly
05 Sep 2009 Georgia v Italy W 0-2 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
09 Sep 2009 Italy v Bulgaria W 2-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
10 Oct 2009 Republic of Ireland v Italy D 2-2 FIFA World Cup Europe group 8
14 Nov 2009 Italy v Netherlands D 0-0 International Friendly
03 Jun 2010 Italy v Mexico L 1-2 International Friendly
14 Jun 2010 Italy v Paraguay D 1-1 FIFA World Cup Finals group F
09 Feb 2011 Germany v Italy D 1-1 International Friendly
25 Mar 2011 Slovenia v Italy W 0-1 UEFA European Championship Group C
03 Jun 2011 Italy v Estonia W 3-0 UEFA European Championship Group C
10 Aug 2011 Italy v Spain W 2-1 International Friendly
02 Sep 2011 Faroe Islands v Italy W 0-1 UEFA European Championship Group C
06 Sep 2011 Italy v Slovenia W 1-0 UEFA European Championship Group C
07 Oct 2011 Serbia v Italy D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Group C
11 Oct 2011 Italy v Northern Ireland W 3-0 UEFA European Championship Group C
11 Nov 2011 Poland v Italy W 0-2 International Friendly
15 Nov 2011 Italy v Uruguay L 0-1 International Friendly
29 Feb 2012 Italy v USA L 0-1 International Friendly
01 Jun 2012 Italy v Russia L 0-3 International Friendly
10 Jun 2012 Spain v Italy D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Finals Group C
14 Jun 2012 Italy v Croatia D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Finals Group C
18 Jun 2012 Italy v Republic of Ireland W 2-0 UEFA European Championship Finals Group C
24 Jun 2012 England v Italy W 0-0 (4-2) UEFA European Championship Quarter-final
28 Jun 2012 Germany v Italy W 1-2 UEFA European Championship Semi-final
01 Jul 2012 Spain v Italy L 4-0 UEFA European Championship Final
07 Sep 2012 Bulgaria v Italy D 2-2 FIFA World Cup Europe group B
11 Sep 2012 Italy v Malta W 2-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group B
12 Oct 2012 Armenia v Italy W 1-3 FIFA World Cup Europe group B
06 Feb 2013 Netherlands v Italy D 1-1 International Friendly
21 Mar 2013 Brazil v Italy D 2-2 International Friendly
26 Mar 2013 Malta v Italy W 0-2 FIFA World Cup Europe group B
31 May 2013 Italy v San Marino W 4-0 International Friendly
07 Jun 2013 Czech Republic v Italy D 0-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group B
16 Jun 2013 Mexico v Italy W 1-2 FIFA Confederations Cup Group A
19 Jun 2013 Italy v Japan W 4-3 FIFA Confederations Cup Group A
22 Jun 2013 Italy v Brazil L 2-4 FIFA Confederations Cup Group A
27 Jun 2013 Spain v Italy L 0-0 (6-7) FIFA Confederations Cup Semi-final
30 Jun 2013 Uruguay v Italy W 2-2 (3-2) FIFA Confederations Cup 3rd place play-off
14 Aug 2013 Italy v Argentina L 1-2 International Friendly
06 Sep 2013 Italy v Bulgaria W 1-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group B
10 Sep 2013 Italy v Czech Republic W 2-1 FIFA World Cup Europe group B
11 Oct 2013 Denmark v Italy D 2-2 FIFA World Cup Europe group B
15 Nov 2013 Italy v Germany D 1-1 International Friendly
05 Mar 2014 Spain v Italy L 1-0 International Friendly
04 Jun 2014 Italy v Luxembourg D 1-1 International Friendly
20 Jun 2014 Italy v Costa Rica L 0-1 FIFA World Cup Finals Group D
24 Jun 2014 Italy v Uruguay L 0-1 FIFA World Cup Finals Group D
09 Sep 2014 Norway v Italy W 0-2 UEFA European Championship Qualifying group H
10 Oct 2014 Italy v Azerbaijan W 2-1 UEFA European Championship Qualifying group H
13 Oct 2014 Malta v Italy W 0-1 UEFA European Championship Qualifying group H
16 Nov 2014 Italy v Croatia D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Qualifying group H
31 Mar 2015 Italy v England D 1-1 International Friendly
12 Jun 2015 Croatia v Italy D 1-1 UEFA European Championship Qualifying group H
03 Sep 2015 Italy v Malta W 1-0 UEFA European Championship Qualifying group H
06 Sep 2015 Italy v Bulgaria W 1-0 UEFA European Championship Qualifying group H
10 Oct 2015 Azerbaijan v Italy W 1-3 UEFA European Championship Qualifying group H
13 Oct 2015 Italy v Norway W 2-1 UEFA European Championship Qualifying group H
13 Nov 2015 Belgium v Italy L 3-1 International Friendly
17 Nov 2015 Italy v Romania D 2-2 International Friendly
24 Mar 2016 Italy v Spain D 1-1 International Friendly
29 Mar 2016 Germany v Italy L 4-1 International Friendly
29 May 2016 Italy v Scotland W 1-0 International Friendly
13 Jun 2016 Belgium v Italy W 0-2 UEFA European Championship Group E
17 Jun 2016 Italy v Sweden W 1-0 UEFA European Championship Group E
27 Jun 2016 Italy v Spain W 2-0 UEFA European Championship Finals - Round of 16
02 Jul 2016 Germany v Italy L 1-1 (5-6) UEFA European Championship Quarter-final
01 Sep 2016 Italy v France L 1-3 International Friendly
05 Sep 2016 Israel v Italy W 1-3 FIFA World Cup Europe group G
06 Oct 2016 Italy v Spain D 1-1 FIFA World Cup Europe group G
09 Oct 2016 FYR Macedonia v Italy W 2-3 FIFA World Cup Europe group G
12 Nov 2016 Liechtenstein v Italy W 0-4 FIFA World Cup Europe group G
15 Nov 2016 Italy v Germany D 0-0 International Friendly
24 Mar 2017 Italy v Albania W 2-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group G
11 Jun 2017 Italy v Liechtenstein W 5-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group G
02 Sep 2017 Spain v Italy L 3-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group G
05 Sep 2017 Italy v Israel W 1-0 FIFA World Cup Europe group G
06 Oct 2017 Italy v FYR Macedonia D 1-1 FIFA World Cup Europe group G
09 Oct 2017 Albania v Italy W 0-1 FIFA World Cup Europe group G
10 Nov 2017 Sweden v Italy L 1-0 FIFA World Cup UEFA European qualifier
13 Nov 2017 Italy v Sweden D 0-0 FIFA World Cup UEFA European qualifier
23 Mar 2018 Italy v Argentina L 0-2 International Friendly


Please note: Match history is complete for the Premier and Football Leagues and (in most cases all) internationals.